Why should I care about abstract syntax trees as a frontend engineer?

You may have seen the term "abstract syntax trees", "AST", or maybe even learned about them in a computer science curriculum, but chalked them up as being irrelevant to the work you need to do as a frontend engineer.

On the contrary, abstract syntax trees are ubiquitous in the frontend ecosystem. Understanding abstract syntax trees isn't a requirement for being a productive or successful frontend engineer, but it can unlock a new skill set that has many practical applications in frontend development. First, what are abstract syntax trees?

What is an abstract syntax tree?#

In the simplest form, an abstract syntax tree is a way to represent code so a computer can understand it. The code we write is a giant string of characters that will only do something if a computer can understand and interpret the code.

An abstract syntax tree is a tree data structure. A tree data structure starts with a root value. The root can then point to other values, and those values to others, and so on. This begins to create an implicit hierarchy, and also happens to be a great way to represent source code in a way computers can easily interpret.

For example, say we had the code snippet 2 + (4 * 10). To evaluate this code, multiplication is performed first, followed by addition. Since the addition is the last thing to happen or the highest in this hierarchy it will be the root. It then points to two other values, on the left is the number 2, but on the right is another equation. This time it's multiplication, and it also has two values, the number 4 on the left and 10 on the right.

A common example of using abstract syntax trees is in compilers. A compiler accepts source code as input, and then outputs another language. This is often from a high-level programming language to something low-level, like machine code. A common example in frontend development is transpilation, where modern JavaScript is transpiled to an older version of JavaScript syntax.

But how does this impact you as a frontend engineer?

Why care as a frontend engineer?#

First, you likely rely on tooling built on top of abstract syntax trees on a daily basis. Some common examples of frontend build tools or compilers that rely on abstract syntax trees are webpackbabel, and swc. However, they aren't isolated to build tools. Tools like Prettier (code formatter), ESLint (code linter), or jscodeshift (code transformer) have different purposes but they all rely on abstract syntax trees since they all need to understand and work with source code directly.

It's possible to use most of these tools without an understanding of abstract syntax trees, but some have an expectation that you understand ASTs for the more advanced uses. For example, to create a custom linting rule with ESLint, or a custom code transform with jscodeshift requires traversing and mutating ASTs. Trying to use these tools without this understanding can be a challenging and confusing experience.

One of the biggest benefits is using tools like babel or swc directly to generate, traverse, and mutate ASTs. This enables interacting with code in a reliable and automated way and many of the tools mentioned earlier use these or equivalent tools internally. This allows creating completely custom functionality to statically analyze/audit code, make dynamic code transformations, or whatever problem you might be solving in a large codebase.


While it's not necessary to understand abstract syntax trees to be a productive and successful frontend engineer, having a basic understanding can uplevel your ability to maintain continuously evolving large codebases and more easily interact with common tools that rely on them.  Abstract syntax trees enable interacting with a codebase "at scale."

For more on how to make sweeping changes in a safe and reliable way in any size codebase, check out our course The newline Guide to Practical Abstract Syntax Trees.